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Postpartum Hemorrhage Dr. Saeed Mahmoud MBBS, MRCOG, MRCPI, MIOG,MBSCCP.

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Presentation on theme: "Postpartum Hemorrhage Dr. Saeed Mahmoud MBBS, MRCOG, MRCPI, MIOG,MBSCCP."— Presentation transcript:

1 Postpartum Hemorrhage Dr. Saeed Mahmoud MBBS, MRCOG, MRCPI, MIOG,MBSCCP

2 Definition –Any blood loss that has potential to produce or produces hemodynamic instability –About 5% of all deliveries Incidence

3 Definition >500ml after completion of the third stage, 5% women loose >1000ml at vag delivery >1000ml after C/S >1400ml for elective Cesarean-hyst >3000-3500ml for emergent Cesarean-hyst

4 woman with normal pregnancy- induced hypervolemia increases blood-volume by 30-60% = 1-2L therfore, tolerates similar amount of blood loss at delivery hemorrhage after 24hrs = Secondry PPH

5 Hemostasis at placental site At term, 600ml/min of blood flows through intervillous space Most important factor for control of bleeding from placenta site = contraction and retraction of myometrium to compress the vessels severed with placental separation Incomplete separation will prevent appropriate contraction

6 Etiology of Postpartum Haemorrhage ToneUterine atony 95% TissueRetained tissue/clots Traumalaceration, rupture, inversion Thrombincoagulopathy

7 Predisposing factors- Intrapartum Operative delivery Prolonged or rapid labour Induction or agumentation Choriomnionitis Shoulder dystocia Internal podalic version coagulopathy

8 Predisposing Factors- Antepartum Previous PPH or manual removal Abruption/previa Fetal demise Gestational hypertension Over distended uterus Bleeding disorder

9 Prevention Be prepared Active management of third stage –Prophylactic oxytocin –10 U IM –5 U IV bolus –10-20 U/L N/S IV @ 100-150 ml/hr –Early cord clamping and cutting –Gentle cord traction with surapubic countertraction

10 Remember! Blood loss is often underestimated Ongoing trickling can lead to significant blood loss Blood loss is generally well tolerated to a point

11 Management- talk to and assess patient Get HELP! Large bore IV access Crystalloid-lots! CBC/cross-match and type Foley catheter

12 Diagnosis ? Assess in the fundus Inspect the lower genital tract Explore the uterus –Retained placental fragments –Uterine rupture –Uterine inversion Assess coagulation

13 Management- Assess the fundus Simultaneous with ABC’s Atony is the leading case of PPH Bimanual massage Rules out uterine inversion May feel lower tract injury Evacuate clot from vagina and/ or cervix May consider manual exploration at this time

14 Management- Bimanual Massage

15 Management- Manual Exploration Manual exploration will: –Rule out the uterine inversion –Palpate cervical injury –Remove retained placenta or clot from uterus –Rule out uterine rupture or dehiscence

16 Replacement of Inverted Uterus

17 Management- Oxytocin 5 units IV bolus 20 units per L N/S IV wide open 10 units intramyometrial given transabdominally

18 Replacement of Inverted Uterus


20 Management- Additional Uterotonics Ergometrine (caution in hypertension) –.25 mg IM 0r.125 mg IV –Maximum dose 1.25 mg Hemabate (asthma is a relative contraindication) –15 methyl-prostaglandin F2 alfa –O.25mg IM or intramyometrial –Maximum dose 2 mg (Q 15 min- total 8 doses) Cytotec (misoprostol) PG E1 –800-1000 mcg pr

21 Management- Bleeding with Firm Uterus Explore the lower genital tract Requirements Appropriate analgesia Good exposure and lighting Appropriate surgical repair May temporize with packing

22 Management – ABC’s ENSURE THAT YOU ARE ALWAYS AHEAD WITH YOUR RESUSCITATION!!!! Consider need for Foley catheter, CVP, arterial line, etc. Consider need for more expert help


24 Management- Continued Uterine Bleeding Consider coagulopathy Correct coagulopathy –FFP, cryoprecipitate, platelets If coagulation is normal –Consider embolization –Prepare for O.R.

25 Surgical Aproches Uterine vessel ligation Internal iliac vessel ligation Hysterectomy



28 Conclusions Be prepared Practice prevention Assess the loss Assess the maternal status Resuscitate vigorously and appropriately Diagnose the cause Treat the cause

29 Summary: Remember 4 Ts Tone Tissue Trauma Thrombin

30 Summary: remember 4 Ts “TONE” Rule out Uterine Atony Palpate fundus. Massage uterus. Oxytocin Methergine Hemabate

31 Summary: remember 4 Ts “Tissue” R/O retained placenta Inspect placenta for missing cotyledons. Explore uterus. Treat abnormal implantation.

32 Summary: remember 4 Ts “TRAUMA” R/O cervical or vaginal lacerations. Obtain good exposure. Inspect cervix and vagina. Worry about slow bleeders. Treat hematomas.

33 Summary: remember 4 Ts “THROMBIN” Check labs if suspicious.

34 CONSUPMTIVE COAGULOPATHY (DIC) A complication of an identifiable, underlying pathological process against which treatment must be directed to the cause

35 Pregnancy Hypercoagulability  coagulation factors I (fibrinogen), VII, IX, X  plasminogen;  plasmin activity  fibrinopeptide A, b- thromboglobulin, platelet factor 4, fibrinogen

36 Pathological Activation of Coagulation mechanisms Extrinsic pathway activation by thromboplastin from tissue destruction Intrinsic pathway activation by collagen and other tissue components Direct activation of factor X by proteases Induction of procoagulant activity in lymphocytes, neutrophils or platelets by stimulation with bacterial toxins


38 Significance of Consumptive Coagulopathy Bleeding Circulatory obstruction  organ hypoperfusion and ischemic tissue damage Renal failure, ARDS Microangiopathic hemolysis

39 Causes Abruptio placentae (most common cause in obstetrics) Sever Hemorrhage (Postpartum hge) Fetal Death and Delayed Delivery >2wks Amniotic Fluid Embolus Septicemia

40 Treatment Identify and treat source of coagulopathy Correct coagulopathy –FFP, cryoprecipitate, platelets

41 Fetal Death and Delayed Delivery Spontaneous labour usually in 2 weeks post fetal death Maternal coagulation problems < 1 month post fetal death If retained longer, 25% develop coagulopathy Consumptive coagulopathy mediated by thromboplastin from dead fetus tx: correct coagulation defects and delivery

42 Amniotic Fluid Embolus Complex condition characterized by abrupt onset of hypotension, hypoxia and consumptive coagulopathy 1 in 8000 to 1 in 30 000 pregnancies “anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy”

43 Amniotic Fluid Embolus Pathophysiology: brief pulmonary and systemic hypertension  transient, profound oxygen desaturation (neurological injury in survivors)  secondary phase: lung injury and coagulopathy Diagnosis is clinical

44 Amniotic Fluid Embolus Management: supportive

45 Amniotic Fluid Embolus Prognosis: 60% maternal mortality; profound neurological impairment is the rule in survivors fetal: outcome poor; related to arrest-to- delivery time interval; 70% neonatal survival; with half of survivors having neurological impairment

46 Septicemia Due to septic abortion, antepartum pyelonephritis, puerperal infection Endotoxin activates extrinsic clotting mechanism through TNF (tumor necrosis factor) Treat cause

47 Abortion Coagulation defects from: Sepsis (Clostridium perfringens highest at Parkland) during instrumental termination of pregnancy Thromboplastin released from placenta, fetus, decidua or all three (prolonged retention of dead fetus)

48 Thank you.

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